High estrogen levels which usually protect the women from cardiovascular risk will also increase their risk if they have Type 1 Diabetes. In diabetes, the sex hormone estrogen doubles the levels of oxidative stress and also decreases the dilation capability of blood vessels. Estrogen has dual behavior in this case. In the absence of diabetes, it actually causes the blood vessels to dilate. But in the presence of Diabetes, it does the opposite by constricting the blood vessels. The reason behind this change of behavior is not yet understood.
Thus a study was conducted with 90 premenopausal women with type 1 Diabetes, 30 healthy premenopausal women and 45 men with Type 1 Diabetes of the same demography. All of them were aged between 18 and 40 with no sign of Cardiovascular disease. Some women with type 1 diabetes will have a combination of antioxidants C and E along with alpha lipoic acid (ALA). This ALA helps the cell to use glucose as energy and remove free radicals that will be produced during the conversion. Other women will take resveratrol which will be present in red grapes, red wine, peanuts, and berries. This compound resveratrol has the capability of activating the protein Sirt 1 which reduce the reactive oxygen levels produced by endothelial cells of the blood vessels. Sirt 1 also increases the availability of nitric acid which can dilate the blood vessels. During high levels of estrogen, Sirt 1 increases but at the condition of diabetes, it is lowered. The rest of the women are subjected to Placebo treatment. The blood vessel health is monitored by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery.
The study showed that Superoxide Dismutase, an enzyme that breaks down RO molecules are reduced and oxidative stress markers are increased. This is because of high glucose levels which also decrease the levels of nitric oxide. As a result, the blood vessels constrict and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
The results of this study are not enough to provide treatments to patients. Thus a larger study is required to predict the accurate reasons and proceed with the treatment.