Estrogen is a hormone which is mainly associated with females. Men also produces Estrogen, but Higher levels of estrogen is produced by females. Although it is present in smaller amounts, yet it plays prominent role maintaining health.
Gender related differences is shown by Type 2 diabetes. It was found that There is reduced incidence of occurring of type 2 diabetes in premenopausal women.
Estrogen acts by improving insulin sensitivity and by suppressing Gluconeogenesis. Estrogen role in controlling glucose homeostasis had given profound of understand diabetes, obesity and interventions of potential diet.
Lowered Insulin resistance and plasma glucose levels have observed in clinical trails of estrogen Replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. This is because deficiency of estrogen or impaired estrogen signaling is found to be associated with fault in regulation of metabolic homeostasis and insulin resistance which results in the development of type 2 diabetes.
As we said premenopausal women are less prone to incidence of type 2 diabetes than with age -equivalent men, but after menopause this advantage in women will disappear with glucose homeostasis as a result of reduced estrogen levels in the body.
Estrogen with potential effect of reducing the occurring of type 2 diabetes causes risk of breast cancer or stroke as side effects of estrogen therapy. But development of targeted estrogens will mimic the therapeutic benefits without any side effects.
Estrogen reduces the risk of developing type 2 diabetes via transcription factor FOXO-1, which increases the insulin resistance and Suppresses Gluconeogenesis.
FOXO-1 plays important role in regulating glucose production via insulin signaling and it is a key component of insulin signaling pathway with regulates cellular growth, differentiation and metabolism.
Hepatic Glucose production is suppressed by Estrogen through activation of estrogen receptor signaling which is independent of receptor substrates Irs1 and Irs2 of insulin which had given a important mechanism for estrogen in regulation of glucose homeostasis.
By the development of novel selective ligands through direct target estrogen receptors prevent type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and Obesity with rising abnormal sexual characteristics and breast cancer.
Fundamental understand of dietary interventions can play a crucial role in controlling weight gain, glucose levels and related harmful diseases.